Wireless Sensor Network Design

Wireless Sensor Network Design

A wireless sensor network is quite simply a handsome number of wireless sensor nodes set in one or the other network format (for example mesh or star).

  • These wireless sensors can be used to monitor either physical or environmental conditions like temperature, sound pressure, etc.
  • They are capable of taking the reading and passing their data through the network to a main or center location.
  • Such networks initially came into existence as a military application for battlefield surveillance and is today being used in many industrial and consumer applications.
  • It is important to note the several design factors that have been laid out by many researchers.
  • This includes the design factors of the overall wireless sensor networks and the that of the protocols and algorithms for wireless sensor networks too.
  • This article provides an in-depth look into those design factors.

Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network:

Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The ability or a sensor node to maintain the sensor network functionalities without any interruption caused due to sensor node failures can be considered as a measure of its reliability.
  • There are many reasons why sensor nodes fail. For example they may fail due to the lack of energy, due to physical damage, inactivity, a communication problem and even environmental interference.

Density in Wireless Sensor Network:

Density in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The density of the wireless sensor nodes affects the level of reliability, accuracy and data processing algorithms.
  • It is highly likely that your specific applications requires you to deploy hundreds and thousands or even millions of sensors.
  • These sensors can be spread over a large area or kept close to one another depending on the purpose of the network.

Sensor Network Topology in Wireless Sensor Network:

Sensor Network Topology in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The network topology has a tendency to affect the latency and capacity as well as robustness of the network.
  • The complexity of the data routing and processing also varies from one network topology to another. For example a highly dense network of wireless sensor requires to pick the topology carefully considering all the requirements.

Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Network:

Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The wireless sensor that is remotely deployed is usually battery operated.
  • Thus the life time of the sensor node is highly dependent on the battery life time. Alternatively there are times when it is possible to use a power source close by to power the node; but this is not always possible.
  • The main power drain is through the three important operations which are sensing, computation and communication.
  • Sensing is the capability of the node to produce a measurable response to change in a physical condition like temperature or pressure.
  • Computation is the task of processing the data and controlling the other components in the sensor node.
  • In addition to which the Sensor node also communicates with other sensor nodes on the network via the network that has been established.
  • The life time of the wireless sensor is also an important factor while considering its efficiency and hence the design of the node is such that it maximizes the battery life and reduces the power consumption.

Hardware Constraints in Wireless Sensor Network:

Hardware Constraints in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The wireless sensor node consists of four main components.
  • This includes a sensing unit, processing unit, transmission unit and a power unit.
  • These sensor nodes connect to a network and route the data via the network in place. Thus they also require location finding system built into the device.
  • In addition to which at times a mobilizer is also required to be able to move the sensor. All these factors affect the design of the sensor node.

Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network:

Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

  • The process of reducing the size of the data by summarizing it into meaningful information that can be propagated through the wireless sensor network is generally called data aggregation.
  • The sensor networks are made up of many hundreds and thousands of nodes. Thus this has the potential of congesting the network.
  • Hence the data is aggregated by the individual node prior to transmitting it.

Transmission Media in Wireless Sensor Network:

Transmission Media in Wireless Sensor Network
It is common for multi-hop sensor networks to use the wireless medium like Bluetooth. This is a common method since it is robust and interference free.

Security in Wireless Sensor Network:

Security in Wireless Sensor Network
There are several threats to a wireless sensor network. They include passive information gathering, node outage, supervision of a node, false node, node malfunction, message corruption, denial of service, etc. This area requires some more research and development though.

Self Configuration Wireless Sensor Network:

Self Configuration Wireless Sensor Network

  • These wireless sensor nodes are deployed in a sensor field in many different manners.
  • A times they fail and new ones need to be used to replace the failed ones.
  • These new nodes need to be self configured to establish a topology that supports communication under severe energy constraints. Thus this is one of the essential factors too.

Quality of Service in Wireless Sensor Network:

  • The requirements of each wireless sensor varies depending up on the reason it has been implemented. For example in some applications the data delivery within a bounded latency is of great importance since otherwise the sensed data delivered would be useless.
  • While in other applications the conservation of power is very important; more than the quality of the data being sent.
  • Thus there are subtle differences between quality of service and energy consumption in each implantation.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on – info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science,  technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter,  on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon.

Other Wireless sensor networks related post:

1. What are Wireless Sensor Networks?

2. Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network

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Why opt for Wireless sensor networks over the other options?

opt for Wireless sensor networks over the other options

  • A Wireless sensor network is a network of several nodes equipped with one or more sensors and also a microcontroller, wireless transceiver and energy source.
  • Such devices tend to have low power consumption and from a complete package with the help of the microcontroller, electronic sensors and the transceiver.
  • Thus this small package converts into a very robust and versatile device which has many advantages over traditional sensing technology.
  • To start with they are low priced and hence it the cost to implement is not very steep. They usually consume very low power and hence can last for quite long time even if they are deployed with their own power source and are not drawing power from the mains.
  • A practical example of where the low cost and easy installation comes in handy is the military application. The characteristics of wireless sensor network makes it simple for the military to air drop the wireless sensor nodes at strategic locations and quickly enable the network remotely.
  • It is highly likely that some nodes may be damaged or not properly placed in such an operation, but the low cost of these devices makes the overall operation affordable.
  • Thus transmitting data from one point to another using a mesh network takes less energy as compared to transmitting directly between two points as per the characteristics of the RF communication.
  • Additionally the overall energy spent in communication will be lower in a mesh network scenario than using traditional point to point communication.
  • Lastly wireless sensor networks offer better coverage due to obvious reasons ( as mentioned earlier). Their overall signal to noise ratio is also quite low thus usable data is quite high.
  • Such wireless sensor networks can be implemented for several different industries. For example the military makes extensive use of the wireless sensor networks for more reasons than one. Besides that it can be used in the agricultural, industrial and transport sectors too.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on – info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science,  technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter,  on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon.

Other Wireless sensor networks related post:

1. What are Wireless Sensor Networks?

2. Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network

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Introduction to Wireless Sensor networks and it’s applications

Wirless-Sensor

  • Wireless sensor networks are implemented as self-configured wireless networks to monitor many different conditions be it physical or environmental.
  • These include monitoring the temperature, sound, vibration, motion, pollutants, pressure and many more factors as well.
  • Since they are wireless networks they are capable of passing the data gathered by the sensors to remote locations where the data is then observed and analysed.
  • In addition to which it is also possible for the remote base to make special inquiries and receive constant alerts regarding the situation of the product or area being monitored.
  • In general a monitoring system set up would consists of many thousands of sensor nodes.

Origin in Wireless Sensor networks:

Origin in Wireless Sensor networks

  • Wireless sensor networks were originally used extensively for many military applications way before they even began to use them normally in industries and otherwise.
  • They can be used in all aspects of a military operation like for distribution of commands, logistical information, intelligence.
  • It also has the ability to provide end to end message security.
  • The individual sensor nodes can be used to measure the electromagnetic energy or signals, light, pressure and sound (explosions).
  • The Wireless sensor networks are also capable of detecting the presence of people and objects.

Applications of wireless sensor networks:

Applications of wireless sensor networks

  • Wireless sensor networks come with a reputation of being able to solve the toughest of tough problems due to their flexibility in solving problems in different application domains and hence have the potential to change the lives of many in different ways.
  • Thus it should come as no surprise that Wireless Sensor networks have been applied in many different domains for many different applications.
  • Among the few popular applications are areas monitoring applications. Such applications use sensor nodes deployed over a wide region; where some phenomenon is to be monitored.
  • Thus when the sensors detect the event which is being monitored for example heat, pressure, etc., this event is reported to the remote base station wireless and the appropriate action is taken.

Additional Applications:

In addition to which it also has many environmental applications as well. It can be used to monitor the air pollution, forest fires detection; even green house monitoring can be possible via wireless sensor networks.

Structural Monitoring in Wireless Sensor networks:

Structural Monitoring in Wireless Sensor networks

  • Wireless Sensors are utilized within buildings and infrastructures like bridges, flyovers, embankments, tunnels etc. to monitor their movement.
  • Thus the engineers can now monitor their assets remotely without having the need invest to personally go to the site. They can monitor the remote locations at any time of the day too.

Industrial Monitoring in Wireless Sensor networks:

Industrial Monitoring in Wireless Sensor networks

  • With wired systems the installation of sensors is sometimes dependent on the budget since a lot of wiring is required.
  • This is not the case with wireless sensor monitoring and thus there is significant cost saving which opens new doors to added functionality.
  • Wireless sensors networks are used extensively in industries to monitor machinery condition and send maintenance alerts which surprisingly is a very cost effective method of doing things.

Agricultural Sector in Wireless Sensor networks:

Agricultural Sector in Wireless Sensor networks

  • This is another sector which benefits from the advantages of wireless monitoring due to the environmental conditions.
  • It easy to set up a wireless sensor network to monitor several different parameters as well as send alerts back to you.

Transportation in Wireless Sensor networks:

Transportation in Wireless Sensor networks

Wireless sensor networks make it possible to collect real time traffic information by installing the networks in strategic locations around the city.

It is possible to arrange active feed regarding the congestions and traffic problems which can then later be fed into the transportation portal of the firm.

Health applications in Wireless Sensor networks:

Health applications in Wireless Sensor networks

  • The hospitals require the monitoring and logging of temperature and humidity and they require this to be accurate.
  • The same applies for several special laboratories and storage facilities which store blood and tissue samples.
  • These sensitive areas require some specialized equipment to monitor and maintain the respective levels of temperature and humidity.
  • For example blood is required to be stored at a specific temperature at all times. If for any reason the storage facility fails and the temperature drops then it needs to be immediately transferred to another place which meets the temperature standards.
  • The same is true for the hospital itself especially the special care units in the hospital where to maintain temperature could mean the difference between life and death.
  • Thus you will find that some temperature monitoring device is usually installed in the hospital and storage facilities.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on – info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science,  technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter,  on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon.

 

Other Wireless sensor networks related post:

1. What are Wireless Sensor Networks?

2. Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network

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Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless sensor networks are wireless networks to monitor physical and environmental conditions like temperature, sound, humidity, vibration, pressure and even pollutants.

As compared to the wired solution the wireless is more versatile but it still requires some kind of structure and format similar to the wired solution. The structure can be any of the several topologies available a mentioned in more detail here.

Structure of a Wireless Sensor Star Network (Single Point To-Multipoint):Structure of a Wireless Sensor Star Network

Image courtesy: eetimes.com

  • Structure: In a Star Network communication topology a single base station can send and receive a message to a number of remote nodes. However in this network the remote nodes are not allowed to send messages to each other. This network allows low latency communication between the remote node and the base station.
  • Pros and cons: It is a simple network with the ability to keep the remote node’s power consumption down. The only downfall due to the characteristics of this network is that the base node must always be within transmission range of all the individual nodes and thus is not as robust as the other networks.
  • Practical example: The Star topology is preferred when there is a relatively small area to cover and latency is low as well.

Mesh Network Structure of a Wireless Sensor:

Mesh Network in Wireless Sensor Star Network

Image Courtesy: eetimes.com

  • Structure: The Mesh Network topology allows individual nodes to transmit data to each other if they are within transmission range. This can be better explained with the example: If one node needs to send a message to another node and that node is out of transmission range, it is possible to use an intermediate node to forward the message to the desired node.
  • Pros and Cons: This network has the advantage of being both reliable and Scalable. In addition to which if in case the rare occurrence of node failure does occur it is possible to re-route the transmission via another node. This does take its toll on the power consumption however. The Multi hop communication tends to require more power thus limiting the battery life of individual sensor nodes.
  • Practical example: The Mesh network topology is a good model for large scale networks of wireless sensors that are distributed over a large geographic region. A good example of the implementation of such a network would be a personnel or vehicle security surveillance system.

Hybrid Star – Mesh Network Structure of a Wireless Sensor:

Hybrid Star - Mesh Network in Structure of a Wireless Sensor Network

Image Courtesy: eetimes.com

  • Structure: As the name suggests this is a hybrid topology between the Star and the Mesh network topology which is a very robust and versatile communication network. This network has two different kinds of sensor nodes those on high power and those on low power. The ones on high power are used for the multi hop feature to forward messages from low power nodes as well. These high power nodes are usually strategically placed such that they are directly connected to the main electric line.
  • Pros and Cons: It is possible to keep the power consumption low with the implementation of this network.
  • Practical examples: In the hybrid Star – Mesh topology several wide spread nodes can be connected to the powered backbone of nodes. In addition to which if the requirement is to organize the network in a hierarchical manner, where the edge nodes perform simple data gathering tasks and router nodes perform communication and computation intensive tasks then it is advantageous to implement the hybrid start – mesh topology.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on –info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science, technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter, on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon

Characteristics of a Wireless sensor networks

A wireless sensor network consists of many different components of which a sensor node is an important yet small part. The characteristics of a good wireless sensor network include power efficiency, scalability, responsiveness, reliability and mobility. A wireless sensor network with these features can prove to be very beneficial and if not followed or ensured can result in a network that suffers from overhead thus negating its applicability.

Power efficiency in wireless sensor networks:

Power efficiency in wireless sensor networks

Image Courtesy: amrita.edu

  • Power efficiency as the name sugMobility is the networks ability to handle mobile nodes and changeable data paths.
  • The way the design goes it is necessary for wireless sensor network to be highly responsive in order for it to deal Mobility is the networks ability to handle mobile nodes and changeable data paths.
  • The way the design goes it is necessary for wireless sensor network to be highly responsive in order for it to deal with mobility. As a result of which it becomes harder to design a large scale as well as mobile wireless sensor network.with mobility. As a result of which it becomes harder to design a large scale as well as mobile wireless sensor network.gests is the efficiency levels of the device in question. Here it is the ability of the device to consume less power to do more by operating under extremely low power levels.
  • This is a very important factor; specially so since it often happens with wireless sensor networks that the sensor nodes are remotely located with no proper access to a power point.
  • Thus these devices are usually built with the ability to work from a power source other than direct electricity. The optimal method of design would be by reducing the duty cycle of each node.
  • Additionally wireless sensors are put to sleep as well to save power and thus are un-responsive to neighbor communication.

Scalability in wireless sensor networks:

Scalability in wireless sensor networks

Image courtesy: edn.com

  • The ability for a network to grow in terms of the number of nodes attached to the wireless sensor network with causing excessive overhead can be termed as its scalability.
  • The basic implementation of such a network usually consists of only a handful of nodes and it is important that they provide support for more as well.
  • There are many kinds of networks; like in an ad hoc network the network is formed without any predetermined topology and thus nodes wishing to communicate with other nodes need to generate more packets than its data packets. Thus as the size of the network grows more packets will be required.
  • There is a higher chance of communication links being broken as the network size increases. Here only small amount of bandwidth will be left for the application data transmission as the network grows.

Wireless sensor networks responsiveness:

wireless sensor networks responsiveness

Image Courtesy: multimedia.ece.uic.edu

  • The ability of the network to quickly adapt itself to change in the topology is considered its responsiveness.
  • There are however downfalls to have a highly responsive network; compromises need to be made. The latency of packet delivery in dynamic environment as well as scalability will decrease in highly responsive network.

Reliability in wireless sensor networks:Reliability in wireless sensor networks

Image courtesy: ni.com

  • Any network needs to be reliable; that would be the basic requirement. You do require reliable data transmission in a state of continuous change of the network structure.
  • There is usually a inverse relationship between scalability and reliability in ad hoc wireless networks. This is because as the number of nodes in the network increases it becomes harder to maintain the reliability.
  • If the network is highly scalable and is scaled in to a bigger network than what it was originally designed to be then this will place a strain on the reliability of data transmission and the breaking point will show up sooner.

Mobility in wireless sensor networks:Mobility in wireless sensor networks

Image Courtesy: ccrc.nthu.edu.tw

  • Mobility is the networks ability to handle mobile nodes and changeable data paths.
  • The way the design goes it is necessary for wireless sensor network to be highly responsive in order for it to deal with mobility. As a result of which it becomes harder to design a large scale as well as mobile wireless sensor network.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on –info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science, technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter, on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon

What are Wireless Sensor Networks?

A wireless sensor network can be defined as a wireless network consisting of many distributed devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions.

Self Forming Wireless Network

Image courtesy: embedsoftdev.com

It is able to provide the information logged by the sensors to remote locations and it can do so without the use of a big and complex wired networks. The entire setup of data being sent from the sensors distributed across a wide area via the wireless sensor network is performed and defined as the wireless sensor network.

Wireless network of sensors distributed over an area. Such kind of networks is usually used for environmental monitoring of air, water or soil and even structural monitoring for building and bridges.

Overview of Applications

Overview of ApplicationsImage courtesy:techon.nikkeibp.co.jp

In addition to which it is also used for many industrial applications and even asset tracking. It is said that the development of wireless sensor networks has a military touch to it. There were initially designed to be used as battlefield surveillance devices and have today been adopted to be also used in many industrial and consumer applications.

  • The wireless sensor networks can be arranged in a start topology, a cluster tree network or a mesh network. They are three different kinds of network topologies.

Components of Wireless sensor network

Components of Wireless sensor network

Image courtesy:ni.com

  • The components of a Wireless Sensor network node include a radio, microcontroller, battery, sensor interface, analog circuit.
  • Such sensors are usually designed to have a low power consumption ratio since they are usually battery operated and are optimised for a longer life of a battery.
  • In addition to which some wireless sensor network nodes have a unique feature where they wake up and transmit data by powering the radio and once transmitted the power down to conserve their energy. This is another feature of the Wireless sensor network that helps conserve the battery and extend its life.

About Company: ADVANTICSYS is a privately-owned high-tech SME which has an important background in information and communication technologies specializing in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other industrial remote monitoring systems.

Get more information about Wireless Sensor Networks visit – www.advanticsys.com or email us on – info@advanticsys.com or call on – +34 91 189 05 21.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science, technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter, on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon.

Temperature Monitoring – How it works

The worst thing for a cold storage center manager is to walk in the morning and find the freezer or refrigerator has failed overnight and all the stock which would be a considerable about of stock since fridges are massive is ruined. Such an event would mean a big loss to the business concerned and not to mention the inability to deliver the products on time. Many businesses employee special people to monitor the fridge systems but that doesn’t always go as planned. It would be invaluable to have an early warning system in place to prevent such incidents but not everybody trusts such systems and some even think that they cannot afford it.

Solution:

The solution is quite simple and it is to install a temperature monitoring device that also allows remote monitoring of all temperature controlled storage units, while also securely logging data and offering immediate alerts in case the temperature goes into the red zone. It is possible to set the alarms to alert you if the temperature starts to increase; these kinds of alerts can be sent to mobile devices or remote monitoring stations. What this does is, it provides the business sufficient time to respond to the failure in the cooling system and restore it back to normal operating more fast and without letting it cause any damage to the stored goods.

Advanticsys is one company that specializes in information and communication technologies in the field of wireless sensor networks and other industrial remote monitoring systems. Advanticsys was established in 2009 and has been contributing to the technological innovation development  by applying new concepts, ideas and products services by relying on an expert group of engineers of different fields. Thus in addition to selling important products Advanticsys also provides customized solution for remote monitoring systems.

About Author:- Johanna Williams

Johana Williams

Hi friends, I am interested in writing about science, technology & Web related stuff. Follow me on Twitter, on Google +Johanna,and/or become a friend on StumbleUpon.

Other temperature monitoring devices related post:

1. The Benefits Of Wireless Temperature Monitoring Devices

2. Monitoring Food Storage Facilities

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